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Defect analysis (inclusions, impurities, pores, cracks)

X-ray tomography

General purpose

Computed tomography (CT) is a non-destructive method for material testing with aim to reveal the inner structure of the materials without their destroying.

Principle of operation

Non-destructive testing of materials using 3D tomography is composed of two steps - scanning and volume reconstruction. During scanning, radiation source, sample and detector are arranged in one plane/line. The sample is fixed in a holder, which is scanned during step-wise rotation about the axis of rotation at a small selected angle (e.g. 12´). The x-ray beam penetrates into the sample and interacts with it. The interacted signal is detected on the digital detector, which converts the x-ray intensity into a digital projection image.
3D Principle schema AA3D CT principle

Usually, the object is rotated totally at 360° which allows 3-D reconstruction of the studied material. X-ray intensity depends on the sample thickness, the density and atomic number of the material. The resulting object is displayed in different grey values, which correspond to the different density of the material; high density leads to bright and low density to dark display.

Application of the technique

Computed tomography can be successfully used to study inner structure of materials in many fields of application, i.e. automotive industry, healthcare, geology, etc. The method allows studying wide range of materials for example: metals, plastics, wood, ceramics, minerals, bones, fossils.

Possibility of CT:

Typical case studies

3D analysis and material composition
Aluminium foam
al_foam-3D3D view
al_foam-xx view
al_foam-yy view
al_foam-zz view
Cloth-3D3D view
Cloth-xx view
Cloth-yy view
Cloth-zz view
Segmentation of aluminium foam infiltrated by PCM
PCM-3D3D view
PCM-xx view
PCM-yy view
PCM-zz view
Structure and defect analysis
Defects in the weld
Weld-3D3D view
Weld-xx view
Weld-yy view
Weld-zz view
Deformation on the outer side of pipe
Pipe-3D3D view
Pipe-xx view
Pipe-yy view
Pipe-zz view
Crack in sprocket
Crack in sprocket
Determination of density and porosity
Porosity measurement
Porosity-3D3D view
Porosity-xx view
Porosity-yy view
Porosity-zz view



Tomáš Dvorák
Peter Oslanec